POLISH FASHION IN 1960s

My reflection of the Polish fashion and design in the 1960s is based on the black and white movies I have seen such as Knife in the water by Roman Polański or Night train by Jerzy Kawalerowicz. The generation born during the war would be in their early twenties by then. It was natural to aim for change as the wounds of war were healing.

Knife in the water by Romand Polański, 1962
‘Knife in the water’ by Romand Polański, 1962
Night train by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, 1959
‘Night Train’ by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, 1959

With the new Polish Communist leader Władysław Gomułka and his vision of socialistic Poland, there was an expansion of block apartments built out of cheap material. Every year thousands of them were released to the public. Those apartments were tiny therefor rooms were multifunctional. Dining rooms during the day would be used as bedrooms at the night time. Multifunctional furniture such as the famous wall unit was present in every apartment. There was no uniqueness, the same style, the same furniture perhaps the colour would change, most of the apartments looked the same.

Wall unit, Poland, Communism era
Wall unit, Poland, Communism era

FIVE YEARS PLAN

Economical and industrial growth was planned five years ahead and it would consider infrastructure and mass production. It meant that the consumer would have to wait five years to purchase the goods.

Ladies Confection was the phrase used instead of fashion and it was run by the Ministry of Light Industry controlled by the Fashion Planning Committee. The officials did not care about the design of the clothes often they would fall asleep during the presentations of them. Fashion brands the way we know them today did not exist. The Department of Clothing Industry would only supply 10% of the market need. In reality, it meant there was nothing in the stores for ages, occasionally goods were sent to the stores which would create massive demand and aggressive queues. The shop assistants were terrified confronting greedy customers.

Drop of goods, Communism in Poland
Queues during Communism in Poland

People on Polish streets looked like they were wearing working uniforms. The dullness of the design brought the need for individuality. Polish women were making new garments out of the existing one. Skirts were made out of old trousers, summer shoes out of the runners, tops were made out of a baby cotton diapers. Despite the obstacles, they say Polish women were very well dressed those days, they made the streets more vibrant. Limitation made it more desired and innovative.

Barbar Hoff, Przekrój, 1960
Barbara Hoff, Przekrój, 1960

Jeans symbolised freedom and western lifestyle, but only the very fortunate had a chance to own a pair. Wearing jeans was a manifestation of a disagreement with the current system. Authorities would shave heads of young guys with long hair, it was seen as immoral western influence.

Woman in a pair of jeans, somewhere in Communistic Poland

BARBARA HOFF

Barbara Hoff is a Polish fashion journalist and a costume designer. During the Communism, she became the most popular fashion designer and the only one who managed to create her own line outside the central planning.

Projekt Barbary Hoff
Designed by Barbara Hoff
Projekt Barbary Hoff
Designed by Barbara Hoff

I had such a feeling that I change something in Poland. I thought that fashion would open people’s heads a little because, under the influence of socialist doctrine, people began to shut their minds. It seemed to me that if society would know about fashion, it would change mentally in some way. Fashion was my idea to change Poland. I always had the feeling that an intelligent man has a duty to do something for his country. This is his responsibility. I based my fight against socialism on fashion. I could have come up with something else, it just happened. As it is now said, it seems unreal, funny, even pompous, but it was! – Barbara Hoff (source)

All images are linked to the original sources.

Author: Aleksandra Walkowska

50’s COMMUNISM AND THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

FSO Syrena Sport

Have you ever heard of ‘the potato beetle propaganda’ in the 1950’s?

So, here in Poland people were led to believe the nasty Americans dropped their potatoes beetles from their planes over East Germany and this invasion of the beetles, later on, spread to Poland too. These invaders had to be exterminated with Azotox, a very toxic detergent, which is more dangerous to the human body than the beetle itself (just an extra bit of protein on potatoes). Sounds a bit like the Irish Potatoes Famine, doesn’t it? Fortunately, here in Poland, it did not kill half of the population. The purpose of it was to distract the nation from the evil temptations of Western culture, the moral crisis and the wicked influence that it could have on the peaceful, idyllic Eastern Bloc. But, underneath the carpet, much more horrifying things were happening here, but secretly.

My mother at the time was a little girl and still remembers the aggressive insect attack, the smell of Azotox she had to spread on the American Colorado beetles that were creeping on the potatoes leaves. Apparently, older people have never seen those nasty insects before and without the extermination, there would be nothing left of the potatoes crop that year. I am left not knowing what to think. There is a bit of truth in every gossip, they say. Fake news and false flag operation is not a recent invention!

The 1950s in Eastern Europe was the period when Communism took a heavy toll on all. While listening to older people who lived through those difficult years I built certain images in my head. I am under the impression most of the time it was dark and very cold, people were frightened and very poor. After Stalin’s death in the 1953 very tight control of the information from the West loosened up. The New Style Look reached Poland in the mid-1950s followed by the desire for self-expression. Under the tragedy & comedy mask of Communism, interesting ideas started to appear in Polish design.

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Beauty every day for everyone. Good patterns of mass production are economic value. Good patterns are also cultural value ~ Wanda Telakowska

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At first, it was the engineers and constructors coming up with the new innovative design ideas. Later on, the industries started to employ young graduates from art schools. I have to admit, only recently through a Polish patriotic fashion brand ‘Red is Bad I found how cool some of those objects were. I believe I am one of many who is only now getting an education on creative Polish minds behind those designs. The new trend of Proud Poland has reached this land in recent years.

 


 

Cezary Nawrot – Polish industrial designer, a lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw and the creator of FSO Syrena Sport. Fans of motoring in Europe were delighted with this model. The body of the car was made of plastic, which was based on a self-supporting floor plate. Under the very low mask of the Syrena Sport, there was a prototype two-cylinder, four-stroke boxer engine developing the power of about 35 HP. The drive was moved to the front axle using a four-speed gearbox. The novelty was the hydraulic clutch drive and shift lever in the floor. Weighing about 700 kg, the coupe accelerated to a maximum speed of 110 km/h.

FSO Syrena Sport
FSO Syrena Sport

Although it was known from the very beginning that Syrena Sport is only a test platform of new solutions and technologies and that it will not enter the general production, it was not without pressure from the press and motoring enthusiasts to start even a short production series. The management of FSO was forced to end the work on Syrena Sport and to hide the only prototype.

The car, unfortunately, did not agree with the socialistic reality as an apparently it aroused the desire for the Western lifestyle. A dozen years later it was destroyed along with other projects to free the garage space. To this day, Syrena Sport is considered the most beautiful project of the Polish automotive industry. In 1962, the English showed the world the Triumph Spitfire model, which is reminiscent of Siren Sport. (source: bit.ly/2FNpKL9)

FSO Syrena Sport
FSO Syrena Sport

Instead of driving Syrena Sport, Polish roads were led by its ugly sister. Today, it is treated by cars lovers as a vintage automobile and often is used as a wedding car. Who would think! Whole fifty years later it got a new life! Through an appreciation of the present generation, it receives love, respect and dignity.

Syrena, Polish car designed in 1950s
Syrena, Polish car designed in the 1950s

POLISH DESIGN 1950’s

‘Furniture does not have to be attractive, formally expansive. Our life is rich enough not to complicate it with the forms of residential interiors’ ~ said Maria Chomentowska, an exceptional Polish furniture designer, creator of furniture icons for Polish design, the employee of the Institute of Industrial Design in the years 1951-1977. Chomentowska created about 200 design projects.

Char 'Spider' by Maria Chomentowska, 1956
Chair ‘Spider‘ by Maria Chomentowska, 1956
Chair 'Lungs' by Maria Chomentowska, 1956
Chair ‘Lungs’ by Maria Chomentowska, 1956

LUBOMIR TOMASZEWSKI

‘When I find twisted branches in a forest, I always have an impression that they talk about the battle with nature and life’s strength. My job is to add the rest of the story in the visual language~ Lubomir Tomaszewski, founder of Emotionalist Movement and remarkable Polish designer of the post-war period.

Designers such as Tomaszewski did not know the current work of foreign designers simply because they did not have access to it. They were aware of their ignorance of porcelain manufacturing technology and poor technical facilities in Polish factories. Knowing about these limitations, sculptors decided to experiment. Thanks to this, unique and original works could have been created. Everything was an experiment. Adventure with design began with small figures, individual forms were easier to enter into production than entire sets. In addition, the short series gave the opportunity to test the market and check the reaction to the product. Figures were to ensure financial liquidity, high sales were aimed at. (source: bit.ly/2CLo0kH)

 

 

Lubomir Tomaszewski, 'Camel', 1957
Lubomir Tomaszewski, ‘Camel’, 1957
Lubomir Tomaszewski, 'Roe deer', 1958
Lubomir Tomaszewski, ‘Roe deer’, 1958

 

‘PICASSY’ MIECZYSŁAW NARUSZEWICZ

Polish glass and ceramic designer, creator of original figurines that were remarkably expressive in their form and charming to their audience particularly his animal figurines, which offered an element of surrealism and surprise. Since 1958, Mieczyswław Naruszewicz together with Lubomir Tomaszewski were employed by Institute of Industrial Design. They worked on Ćmielów Figures sculptural ceramics created in Poland in between 1950-1960.

Mieczysław Naruszewicz, 'Panther', 1958
Mieczysław Naruszewicz, ‘Panther’, 1958
Mieczysław Naruszewicz, 'Żubr', 1957
Mieczysław Naruszewicz, ‘Żubr’, 1957
Mieczysław Naruszewicz, 'Turkey', 1956,
Mieczysław Naruszewicz, ‘Turkey’, 1956

All images are linked to the original sources.

Recommended pages to visit: desa.pl muzeumwarszawy.pl  culture.pl/en  meblostan.pl iwp.com.pl as.cmielow.com.pl

Author: Aleksandra Walkowska

POLISH DESIGN / 1930’s

Shoe workshop Kielman, Warsaw, Interwar period.

Hello, to all of you who follow my blog. At first, I would like to apologise for not posting for such a long time. My Mac has decided to say goodbye … or it’s hard-drive made the decision. I have tried to replace it with an SSD card but it behaved like a patient who did not recognise the heart transplant. The images I had prepared for my future posts are not available now, consequently, I had to change the flow of topic, from the interior design and architectural festival in Dublin to Polish design and its history. Hope you find it enjoyable!

GRANDPARENTS HOUSE

I am very sentimental when it comes to the interior design of my grandparent’s house, especially the living room. Their house was built and decorated in the late 1930s before the war in a style I deeply admire and respect. The elegant cut in fashion, refined strong lines in furniture design and in the architecture. My grandparent’s cottage in Greater Poland was built firm and compact, therefore, generation after generation will live in it comfortably. Every room had a ceramic oven that would warm up the place till the early morning, this technology must have been brought here by the Germans who were always very present in the West of Poland. In the living room, there was a wooden round table forever decorated with a hand made linen table cloth that was embroidered by my grandmother. Special plates and glasses were kept in a solid dark timber cabinet. Loud tick-tock coming from the clock on the wall, was a great reminder of the time passing by. Every so often the clock had to be manually set by the alfa male of the house, my grandfather. It was an important and responsible job, setting up the time machine. Time had a slightly different value back then. The reproduction of ‘The last supper’ by Leonarda da Vinci covered the wall were all family gatherings took place every Sunday.

Every item had its place, there was no room for unnecessary poor quality pieces. Well, back then most of the pieces of furniture were made by hand and once made they did not have to be replaced until the next generation grew up and took the lead. Funny how I find it enchanting when my mother calls it an old junk! Apparently, sixty years have to pass by before something becomes a collector’s piece. At first, it has to go through the journey of being kitsch then junk and so on until well-aged grandchildren will discover it again and call it classic. Those are my memories, unfortunately, I do not have any images to share … well, the war was not the time to take photographs.

Grandparents house in Greater Poland.
Grandparents house in Greater Poland.

POLISH DESIGN 1930s

I went through the few websites and found some well-constructed design pieces from the 1930s. Poland back then when was still a free country.
Chair 1930. XX w. Poland.
Chair 1930. XX w. Poland.
Serwis do kawy 'Płaski' lata 30. XX w proj. Bogdan Wendorf
Coffee service ‘Płaski’ 1930. XX w proj. Bogdan Wendorf
Ring. Interwar period. Poland.
Ring. Interwar period. Poland.
A bottle of beer from the Haberbusch and Schiele brewery.
A bottle of beer from the Haberbusch and Schiele brewery.
Sugar-bowl 'Kula' 1935. Proj. Julia Keilowa.
Sugar-bowl ‘Kula’ 1935. Proj. Julia Keilowa.
Shoe workshop Kielman, Warsaw, Interwar period.
Shoe workshop Kielman, Warsaw, Interwar period.
Polish steam train
Steam train Pm36-1 Beautiful Helen PKP, 1936. Speed 140k/h. Warsaw-Kraków, Warsaw-Łódz routes. Up till 1942 used by the German occupants, rumours say later on used in the Soviet Union.

Polish steam train 1936

All images are linked to the original source.

Author: Aleksandra Walkowska